Pasteur laboratory & veterinary clinic founded in 1999 by Dr. S. Khajehnasiri and Dr. N. Sheikhi. The main objective was to promote veterinary and public health in I.R of IRAN.
This laboratory from the day one, has had several innovation especially in direct HI test for MG and EDS in private section and culture of several pathological and food samples. This laboratory was successful in the isolation of Alicyclobacillus from fruit juice in Iran for the fist time.
The future Pasteur laboratory projects are using new methods for isolation and diagnosis for viruses.
This laboratory founded in 1993 and continued its activities under the management and license of Paydam Company until 1998. The laboratory from 1998-1999 was a contractor for Paydam Company and from 1999 continued its activities by the name of Pasteur.
The scientific and executive history of founders
1- Dr S. M. Khajehnasiri
1964: Graduation from veterinary college, Tehran University
1965: Employment in veterinary organization
1965: Beginning of 5 year service in Gonbad Kavous Veterinary Office
1970: Start of activities south clinic of Tehran Veterinary College
1971: Working in brucellosis diagnosis laboratory (Under supervision of Dr. Nicolti from USA) in microbiological laboratories (parasitology, bacteriology, mycology) and the achievement of the tests related to the Veterinary College clinics.
1989: Start of cooperation with Tehran Province Veterinary Organization and the achievement all of the tests related to imported and exported livestock, poultry and fish samples.
1993 Retirement and start of cooperation with Paydam Company to 1998
1999 to the present time: Foundation of Pasteur laboratory and continuing independent activities.
Dr. S. Khajehnasir has advised 20 final projects in Veterinary and Dentistry College.
2- Dr. Nariman Sheikhi
1991: D. V. M from Tehran Veterinary College
1993: Starting work in Paydam Veterinary Laboratory
1998: Post doctorate in poultry diseases from Tehran University.
1999 to the present time: Foundation of Pasteur laboratory and veterinary clinic and passing several laboratory and veterinary courses in France, Iran Veterinary Organization Diagnosis Center, Veterinary Network, Kosar Economical Organization, Tehran Veterinary College and Razi Institute.
2004: Academic activity in Veterinary College of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch.
Pasteur laboratory and veterinary Clinic Sections
Now, Pasteur laboratory and veterinary clinic has the following section:
Pasteur laboratory has two separate receptions one for pathological and the other for food samples. These two sections are completely separate and each one has its own circulating pathway.
B- Veterinary Pathological Laboratory:
Veterinary laboratories are a useful aid in diseases control for veterinarians and producers. The main function of these laboratories is to provide assistance for veterinarian in disease diagnosis.
The Pasteur veterinary laboratory consists of several sections, including molecular biology, serology, microbiology (bacteriology, mycology and parasitology) and pathology. All of these sections are located in the central laboratory building in Parcham Ave., Tehran.
In this laboratory, veterinarians with the cooperation of experienced laboratory technicians have the responsibility for several steps of test performance including: sample reception, form completion, investigation of veterinarian request, test operation and report preparations.
All of the tests and reports preparations are done by modern facilities, standard kits and computer systems.
The main activities in this laboratory center are as follows:
1- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
2- Biochemical analysis of blood sample and CBC
3- Special tests for the diagnosis of poultry diseases
5- Culturing and antibiogram of all kind of samples
6- Special tests for the diagnosis of large and small animals
1 – Molecular Diagnosis and Finding of Pathogen by PCR
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a modern and precise system for pathogen identification. The basis of this method is creating copies of specific fragments of DNA for diagnoing the microorganisms.
The PCR application is very common in different sciences. For example, small samples of DNA, such as those found in a strand of hair at a crime scene, can produce sufficient copies to carry out forensic tests.
In veterinary sciences the PCR has widely uses for finding and identification of several pathogens including Mycoplasma agents in poultry flocks such as MG and MS, diagnosis and identification of different viruses including Avian Influenza, Infection Bronchitis etc.
By the way, this method is a very accurate test for aquaculture diseases diagnosis.
Pasteur veterinary laboratory is proud that by using expert poultry veterinarian and experienced technician in laboratory sciences and application of modern facilities and standard international kits, can offer complete services for disease finding and diagnosis to Iran’s veterinarians and animal farmers.
By considering this facts that PCR sampling needs special procedure,
2- Biochemical Analysis of Blood Samples
Determination of blood biochemical profile is a very useful and rapid test, as it gives the veterinarian an overview of how your animal body functions. Usually veterinarians by interpretation of these profiles can find internall disorders and/or where dysfunction may be occurring.
It is better to be send the animal to laboratory for blood sampling. If it is impossible, depend on the requested test, a blood sample is sent to a laboratory whit or without anticoagulant.
The tests such as blood sugar, urea, albumen, total protein, immunoglobulin, IgG, bilirubin, Ca, P, Cl, Cholesterol, Kereatinin, Mg, Mn, nitrate, K, Na, ureic acid, enzymes(Ck, GGT, Alkp, Ast), Differential Counts(CBC), PCV are routine in Pasteur veterinary laboratory.
Interpretation of test results depends on animal species, size, sex and disease and must be carried out by a veterinarian. Changes in the biochemical profile can help a doctor to diagnose diseases affecting the liver, kidney, pancreas, or endocrine systems. Once diagnosed, many of these diseases are treatable.
In most cases, especially in pet animals, a biochemical profile may be recommended in intervals, as part of a health maintenance plan and disease control.
We cordially request from dear veterinarians, industrial farmers and pet animal owners, for more information about biochemical test and directions for interpretation of test results,
3- Serological Tests for Poultry Blood & Egg
Serological tests are sometimes regarded as the principal means of evaluating infectious disease in poultry. Serological methods, however, have been applied widely in the monitoring of vaccination response in poultry.
The several tests including IF, AGID, RST, HI, EISA, for Newcastle disease diagnosis, Influenza, Infectious Bursal Disease, Infectious Bronchitis, Laryngoterachitis, Reovirus, Encephalomyelitis, MG, MS, Ornitobacter, Pasteurelosis, Salmonelosis, Anemia, Leucosis-J and TRT in chicken, turkey, quail, duck, ostrich, pigeon and caged birds, are the main activities of Pasteur veterinary laboratory.
The first report of the use of a serological test in the diagnosis and control of a disease of poultry was made in early 20th century by using of a Tube Agglutination Test for Pullorum disease. Rapid Agglutination Tests are still widely performed for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and M. synoviae in chickens.
The blood sample that will be send for laboratory must be taken before bird feeding (as they are fasted).Do not freeze blood or serum, and please send samples to laboratory as soon as possible (less than 24 hours).
Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) is another type of serological test. Its application is not only for detection but also for quantification of specific antibody against Newcastle, Influenza, EDS, Infectious Bronchitis and MG in poultry.
Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (Elisa) is one of the serological testing method to be widely taken up by the poultry industry. Initially, the Elisa technique used by scientists worked in university and government laboratories. However, producing commercially kits, allowed relatively simple laboratories to carry out a range of serological tests for important poultry pathogens.
Just as mammals pass on a package of specific antibodies to their progeny via the first milk or colostrums, birds achieve the same result by secreting a large amount of antibody into the yolk of their eggs. For this reason yolk extracts can be used as a substitute for serum samples for serological monitoring.
Pasteur veterinary laboratory synchronous with modern scientific and research centers, by updating test methods and technology transfer, especially for diagnosis in poultry diseases field, will do it’s best for complete and precise services for it’s clients.
Also for research purposes and special requests, many other tests such as serum-neutralization, immunofluorescence, complement fixation and so on, is well established in Pasteur veterinary laboratory.
4- Culture and Antibiogram
Culture is propagation of bacteria cells in a sample for identification and if necessary antibiogram test. The main bacteria that are cultured and identified by Pasteur laboratory are: Mycoplasma, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Entrobacteriacea, Campylobacter, Corynebacteria, Salmonella, Vibrio, Haemophilous, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas, Morexalla, Niesseria, Brucella, Bacillus, clostridium, Aeromonus, Lactobacillus.
Antibiogram test, measures the ability of an antibiotic or other antimicrobial agent to inhibit bacterial growth in vitro. This ability may be estimated by either the dilution method or the diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing has become a very essential step for the proper treatment of infectious diseases.
It is used to guide the veterinarian in selecting the best antimicrobial agent and also to accumulate epidemiological information on the resistance of microorganisms of public health importance.
In Pasteur veterinary laboratory, the choice of drugs used in a routine antibiogram are divided into two sets:
1- Set 1 includes drugs that are available in most veterinary pharmacy in Iran.
2- Set 2 are to be performed only at the special request of the veterinarian, or when the causative organism is resistant to the first-choice drugs.
Histopathology is one of the major tools of diagnosis in veterinary. The major advantages of histopathology are the ability to provide a precise diagnosis of some diseases, as well as demonstrating the tissue reactions.
Furthermore, veterinary histopathology is the only way to diagnose some diseases. As a general term, Histopathology is a field of pathology which specializes in the histological study of diseased tissue.
Histopathological examination of tissues starts with surgery, biopsy or autopsy. The tissue is removed, and then placed in a fixative which stabilizes the tissues to prevent decay. The most common fixative is formalin (10% formaldehyde in water).
For formalin 10% preparation, please mix one part of commercial formalin (for example 100 ml) with nine parts of water (for example 900 ml), and use this solution for primary preservation of tissue.
In Pasteur laboratory, we provide commonly used histopathological methods for veterinary diagnosis
6-Serological Tests on Livestock Blood and Milk
Serological tests on blood and milk are the common tests for health determination and diseases diagnosis in animals including cattle, sheep, gout, horse and dogs.
Pasteur laboratory by performing serological tests, particularly for viral diseases in large and pet animals, has special services for veterinarian and animal owners.
Different diseases including Leucosis, Bovine Viral Diarrhea, Mucosal Diseases, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Pestivirus, Salmonella, Listeria, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Bovine Johne`s Diseases, are identified and diagnosed by several methods in this laboratory.
Also pregnancy diagnosis by determination of blood progesterone level and achievement of all of the tests related to the milk are other activities of Pasteur veterinary laboratory.
C- Food and Beverage Laboratory:
Analysis and knowledge about chemical & microbial characteristics of food, feed and beverage, not only is a necessity for consumer health, but also is very important for producer. Quality control of food and feed, determination of several chemicals, antibiotic residue and detection of metal ion and pesticides are the other objectives for food analysis.
Pasteur food laboratory is honored to announce that by hard effort, it has successfully inaugurated one of the modern and equipped food and beverage laboratories in private section in Iran.
At the present time, complete tests for food, livestock and poultry feed and beverage is achieved in this laboratory as follows:
1- Food and water chemical analysis: CP, TVN, EE, CA, ASH and etc.
2- Food and water microbial analysis
3- Mycotoxins in food samples
4- Drug and chemical residues in food
6- Quality control of food for export and import
7- Water and sewage analysis
8- Other tests
1- Chemical and Physical Analysis of Food
Pasteur food laboratory uses classical methods (physical-chemical) and several apparatuses for food analysis. Classical methods often include simple laboratory equipments, but in some circumstances, modern apparatuses are used for food analysis.
Water is the main part of food and feed composition. Some of the food moisture easily extracted from food by mechanical pressure or heat. But some water molecules are closely bonded to food molecules.
Pasteur food laboratory recommendes moisture determination for two reasons:
1- Determination of food purification and detection of any extra added water.
2- Assessment of food preservation time, because moisture is needed for microorganisms growth.
Ash is what remains when food or feed is burned by heat or oxidized by chemical. Of course this ash is not completely representative of food mineral, because some food mineral may sublimate by heat processing.
The produced ash, in most cases contains: Na, K, Mg, Mn, Ca, Fe, S, P, Cl
Fat contained in food is in the form of free and bound to other compounds. There are several methods for fat extraction. In these methods all of the fat soluble compounds such as phospholipids, sterols, free fatty acids and carotinoids will be measured.
Free Fatty Acids
Fat hydrolysis of food is caused by lipase enzymes with water presence and there is no difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acid.
Lipase may have microbial origin or may originate from the food. In this type of spoilage, fatty acid separates from glycerol, in particular fatty acid C14 or with less C, can cause unpleasant odor and flavor in product.
Oxidation is one of the food spoilage routes and peroxides are product of oxidation. The peroxide is measured by peroxide number. Oxidation is common in unsaturated fatty acid. Since its role is unpleasant odor and flavor of foods, the peroxide measurement is very important. Peroxide or hydro peroxide are primary products of lipid oxidation and in unsaturated fat it is a very important factor. There is a limit for production of hydrogen peroxide in foods and over this limit is a sign of spoilage.
Fatty Acid Identification
There are many fatty acids and so there are several fats with different characteristics, by fatty acid identification you can identify the source of fatty acid or probably adulteration.
One of the precise and rapid methods for fatty acid identification is Gas Liquid chromatograph or GLC.
Na, K, Ca and P
The mineral content of food and feed is measured by several chemical methods and special equipment.
Flame photometry is a method for measurement of Na, K, Ca, Li.
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery, is a more important method. This method is a simple and precise method for measurement of small amounts of metallic ion.
Proteins are amino acids polymers and for their structure and chemical composition, they have very important role in physical texture, flavor and odor of food.
There are several methods of protein measurement; each one can be used on the basis of sample type, speed of methods and number of sample.
Macrokjeldahl compared to other methods is a very simple and precise technique and accepted as a standard method.
2- Food and Beverage Microbial Tests
In Pasteur food laboratory, identification of bacterial species in food samples and total count and coliform count are routine tests.
The material and method used for these tests are adopted by tables and flowcharts that referenced by international organizations and Iran’s standard.
International references are AOAC, EN and FAO
Food and feed samples must be transported to the laboratory in closed plastic or nylon bags, for preventing any extra moisture or fat absorbed.
Toxins and poisons produced by fungi are named mycotoxins. On the basis of a general agreement this term is restricted to fungi that found in food or feed. At the present time, is well established that mycotoxin are responsible for many epidemic in human and animal population.
Most fungi that are found in food and feed belong to genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. These fungi produce Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin, Fusariotoxin and etc.
The Pasteur laboratory management, by considering the importance of mycotoxins in food and feed hygiene, has been provided some facilities for detection and measuring fungal toxin by using standard kits in this laboratory.
4- Determination of Drug Residues in Foods
Drug residues in food by animal origin are among the most important considerations for consumer. These residues, by accumulation in human body will cause allergies, intoxication, mutation, teratogenicity and cancer and are human health hazards.
Also there are evidences that antibiotic residues in foods will produce bacterial resistant strain in their host body.
Pasteur food laboratory by using modern equipment and facilities is ready for coordination with private institutes and state organizations for tests related to drugs, toxins and pesticides in food with animal and plant origin.
Histamine is a natural substance produced by the body and is also present in many foods. It is released by the body during times of stress and allergy.
Histamine, which is the most important biogenic amine, can cause poisoning as a result of the ingestion of food containing high levels of this amine including fish and fish products. The increasing level of histamine in these foods is an indication of food spoilage which is dependent upon, the presence of microorganisms.
Pasteur laboratory experts advise histamine measurement as a confident method for determination of food quality and ready to provide complete information about these methods.
6-Quality Controls of the Food for Export and Import
All foods that are exported from or imported to Iran are subjected to the regulations of Health Minister, Deputy of Food and Drugs and Veterinary Organization. These regulations contain laboratory certifications about food health and safety for consumers.
Consequently, the information need for labeling and inhibition of any quality decreasing must be certified by these laboratories.
Pasteur laboratory by providing requirements and taking standards, is ready for cooperating with food and beverage exporters and importers for necessary tests and international certificates.
7- Water and Sewage Complete Analysis
Chemical and microbiological analysis, quality studies of drinking waters, surface and groundwater and advising for improvement of water quality are other activities of Pasteur laboratory. The following samples are accepted for analysis:
1- Well and fountain drinking water
2- Bathing waters and Swimming pools
3- Natural mineral and bottled water
4- Purified and injection waters
5- Waste waters and Process waters
BOD and COD, solid, metal and organic compound measurement in water are the main tests for water and sewage in Pasteur laboratory.
8- Related Tests
1- Assessment of strength and stability of powder and liquid disinfectant on microorganism in food industry and animal husbandry farms.
2- Assessment of disinfectant residue in food processing machinery.
3- Microbial assessment for restaurant and food processing plants on HACCP basis.
4- Residual determination of toxins and metals in stagnant and surface water.
5- Examination of probably contamination of exported animal intestine.
6- Examination of contamination of exported lamb and goat wool for Anthrax bacilli.
7- Origin determination of meat in food products such as sausage.
D- Diagnostic Veterinary Clinic
Pasteur Clinic consists of three main sections. The first section serves industrial poultry farms (#broiler and #layer producer, #turkey, #ostrich, duck and quail) second section is related for miscellaneous birds (pheasant, peacock, guinea fowl, predator birds) and also there are special services for caged birds (canary, parrot, pigeon, mynah). The third section is related for pet and exotic animals (dog, cat, rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, reptile),
1- Autopsy, Advising and Diagnosis the Diseases of Poultry
Early recognition of bird disease is necessary for a successful poultry farmer. It permits an immediate response, often before the disease is well established. In most cases, it permits more effective medication and treatment at less cost. In addition to the savings resulting from less medication, quick treatment can be of economic importance in reducing growth and production losses.
Poultry producer must consider this fact that diagnosis of poultry diseases is a scientific procedure and has several step including, history taking, flock inspection and dead bird carcass autopsy. More over some diseases can only be identified by laboratory procedures.
Because laboratory techniques are expensive and time consuming, their success is very dependent upon how well the samples are submitted for examination.
By using experts in poultry diseases and application of scientific methods and the latest laboratory techniques, Pasteur poultry clinic is ready to service and technically advise poultry producer.
Indeed the poultry producers who are most successful are those who use the advice and expertise of expert veterinarian and thus detect and control poultry diseases in time of to prevent any damage to the flock.
2- Diagnosis the Diseases of Caged Birds
Most caged bird owners know that caged birds are unique creatures in the way they respond to and exhibit their illnesses, because they can hide the signs of illness
It’s very interesting to know that in the caged birds, latent period or the period during which an animal is sick but does not show obvious signs of the disease, is longer than other animals.
This is because many birds are flock dwellers, with social hierarchies. On this basis, old, weak and sick birds are attacked by stronger birds and will be deprived from feed, water and mating. For this reason, birds instinctively try to look healthy and hide the illness, for as long as possible, to avoid this harassment.
By considering this fact and the small size and weight of most caged birds, it is very obvious that disease diagnosis in caged birds is very precise and needs to the application of laboratory methods.
Caged Birds Diseases Diagnosis section in Pasteur veterinary clinic, by using new facilities and laboratory methods, provides special services for caged birds owners.
Also, an other service in Pasteur clinic is micro chipping in caged birds. By this way, the micro chipped birds, will have an electronic code as an international identification card.
3- The Important Keys for Transferring Sick Birds to Clinic
1- Birds must be transferred to clinic by cage and all of its accessories.
2- Do not clean and do not dispose of birds droppings.
3- During bird transportation, cover the cage with paper or fabric to avoid extra stress and cold weather.
4- Submit bird feed sample to laboratory.
5- If your bird belongs to psittacine or other birds that must be restraint under examination, please submit a thick fabric or towel approximately 80×50 cm.
6- Person who have close contact with bird or are familiar with its behavior, must accompany the bird, if not possible someone who has complete and precise information about diseases history, must be present.
7- If the bird is dead, for disease diagnosis and determination of the cause of death, its carcass can be preserved at 0-40°C in a paper bag for 24 hours and must be submitted to the clinic in ice.
To obtain accurate and confident results from laboratory tests, sampling method and sample submission to laboratory is very important. By considering these reasons we request from all Pasteur laboratory clients, for sampling and sample submission, to use these guidelines:
Poultry and Caged Birds
In most cases a flock problem is already being investigated. Please supply a good clinical history to include age, morbidity and mortality patterns, information on medication and vaccination policy and the type of husbandry system.
1. A batch of birds (e.g. 6 to 10) should be submitted for post-mortem, dead and live moribund birds should be submitted as appropriate.
2. Individual birds may be all that is available from small flocks.
3. Serology can often be a useful diagnostic tool in flock problems.
4. Fresh carcasses should be submitted as post-mortem autolysis occurs rapidly particularly with chicks. Carcasses should not be frozen as this leads to tissue deterioration and renders histology useless.
5. Parasitic infections caused by motile protozoa (Hexamita, Trichomonas, Spironucleus/Hexamita etc) are particularly prevalent in game birds. It is essential that live birds are submitted for an accurate diagnosis to be made.
For safety reasons post-mortems should only be carried out in a microbiological safety cabinet. If sending carcasses through the post, please ensure they are double-wrapped in plastic bags before being boxed. On the outside bag apply an obvious note
‘Suspect Psittacosis’ so that our staff are not accidentally exposed to infection whilst unwrapping the post.
1. All psittacines are treated as potentially infected with psittacosis and will be routinely screened for this condition. If you wish to screen live birds, pooled faeces from an aviary or individual bird samples can be tested by the PCR.
2. Send fresh unpreserved faeces or cloacae swabs but do not use swabs with wooden shafts.
3. If a negative result is found then a repeat sample 7-10 days later gives greater assurance of freedom from infection.
Microbiology Sampling Methods
A- Sampling for Aerobic Bacteriology
1. Samples should be as fresh as possible.
2. Sear the surface of organs with a flame or heated scalpel blade prior to swabbing.
3. Submit swabs in suitable (sterile isotonic) transport medium.
4. Faeces samples (not just swabs) are essential if tests other than basic bacteriology are required.
5. Fastidious organisms such as mycoplasma, campylobacter and leptospira require special attention. Please contact us to discuss sampling arrangements.
6. Most bacteria will grow on culture medium after 24 hours incubation and antibiotic sensitivity will entail a further 24 hours.
Some exceptions are:
a. Salmonella by enrichment - minimum 3 days
b. Campylobacter - up to 5 days
c. Brucella abortus - minimum of 4 days
d. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (avian) spp - 6 to 12 weeks
e. Mycoplasma - 10 days to 4 weeks
f. Dermatophytes - 3 weeks.
B- Sampling for Anaerobic Bacteriology
1. For swabs use anaerobe transport medium.
2. For fluids fill the container to very top to exclude any air.
3. Wrap tissues tightly in polythene to exclude any air.
4. For clostridial enterotoxaemia diagnosis, send a minimum of 2 ml of small intestinal contents collected from at least three sites in the ileum. Do not use any preservative. (Note: Clostridial toxins cannot be detected in kidney.)
5. For clostridial myositis or black disease in cattle, or, take four impression smears from the cut surface of affected muscle or liver, air-dry and send in slide box or submit tissue specimen in a sealed air tight container.
C- Mastitis Examinations
Contaminated milk samples will give misleading results. To avoid contamination use the following collection method:
1. Brush loose dirt, bedding and hair from teat. Grossly dirty teats should be washed and dried thoroughly.
2. Discard first streams of milk from the teat.
3. Pre-dip using an effective pre-dip product allowing 30 seconds contact time.
4. Dry teat thoroughly with a paper towel.
5. Scrub the teat end with cotton wool moistened with 70% alcohol. Use as many cotton wool pieces as necessary to clean the teat end, the last piece should be spotless.
6. Allow the teat to dry.
7. Remove the cap of a sterile sampling tube and hold it facing downwards. When collecting the milk sample, hold the tube at approximately at 45° angle. Do not allow the lip of the tube to touch the teat. Collect 1-3 streams of milk and immediately replace the cap.
1. Faeces: Submit at least 10g faeces in a wide-mouthed, screw-capped container (50g for lungworm larvae).
2. Blood: For blood parasites send 2 ml whole blood in EDTA tube or two thinly spread films fixed in methanol.
3. Skin: For skin parasites send deep scrapings (draw blood) and scabs with hair/feathers for mange/feather mites or plucked underlying hair for ringworm.
Send fresh, undamaged specimens of ticks, lice and fleas in screw-capped containers. All samples should be submitted in screw-top containers and not envelopes.
Paired sera are valuable in the diagnosis of respiratory and other disease outbreaks but please note the following:
1. If the first sample is taken too late the animals may have already seroconverted and the outbreak may be over by the time the second sample is due.
2. Sample several animals ensuring that they are identified properly for second bloods to be taken.
3. Sampling intervals can vary but as a general rule, they should not be less than two weeks.
4. Antibody levels in single samples are of limited value since they are difficult to interpret.
ELISA test permit rapid identification of BVD/MD in both live animals and carcasses.
A- Live Animal selection
1. Select recently affected animals.
2. Animals with muco-purulent nasal discharge are less likely to yield virus.
3. Blood of affected animal with disease symptom or fever is a good sample.
4. Blood of affected animal with clinical sign suspected to PI is a good sample.
1. Submit intact fresh carcasses or lung tissue.
2. Two or three blocks of lung tissue (2 cm cubes) from the junction between healthy and affected tissue or tracheal/bronchial swabs.
3. Tissues or swabs should be forwarded to the RL as soon as possible.
Isolation of viruses from field cases is not routinely undertaken, is time-consuming and often difficult as some respiratory viruses survive poorly in transport. When virus isolation is required the samples should be submitted in virus transport medium (VTM).
1. Aspirated fluid is best placed in an EDTA container before submission.
2. Direct smears should be made in the same way as blood smears then air-dried and fixed in methanol for a minimum of 5 minutes.
3. Please submit 2-3 smears to allow for different staining methods.
1. Tissue samples should not be more than 1 cm thick.
2. Samples should be fully representative of the basic organ structure and include the junction between gross lesions and normal tissue.
3. Samples should be immersed in 10-20x their volume of fixative as soon as possible.
4. Samples should be sent in an appropriately sized container with a wide opening.
5. Brain is best fixed whole allowing the pathologist to select appropriate sites.
6. Collect intestinal samples, as soon after death as possible (minutes not hours), from several sites of small and large intestine.
7. Immersion fixation of gut tubes 1-2 cm in length is satisfactory, but avoids crushing with forceps. Gentle agitation of the sample in the fixative will help displace food material.
If the above guidelines are followed, primary fixation of most samples should take 24-48 hours. However, whole brains will take longer.
Packaging and Sending Histological Samples
1. Material must be properly packaged. Packaging must conform to the postal regulations for packaging of pathological material.
2. Urgent cases can be sent immediately if the container is filled with fixative so that primary fixation occurs in transit.
3. If no urgent, tissue can be initially fixed for 48 hours then sent in a reduced volume of fixative. This method is particularly appropriate for brain.
4. The recommended fixative for most cases is formalin 10%.
5. For formalin 10% preparation, please mix one part of commercial formalin (for example 100 ml) with nine parts of water (for example 900 ml).
Food Sampling for Chemical Analysis
1. Submit samples in closely tight plastic or nylon containers to prevent any extra moisture and lipid adsorbtion.
2. Several samples must be submitted in different containers.
3. Take samples from different parts of a batch, particularly if you have a big batch.
Food Sampling for Microbial Tests
1. Submit samples at 0-4ºC to laboratory (Use ice packs if necessary)
2. Some samples such as ice-cream must be submitted as frozen.
3. If possible don’t damage the original package.
4. Use sterile conditions (near the flame) for separating some parts of the sample.
1. Use sterile containers for sampling. Please contact Pasteur laboratory for providing sterile container.
2. If to provide sterile container is impossible, boil glass container with metal lid for 20-30 minutes, and use it for sampling.
3. Submit sample as soon as possible (less than 24 hours).
4. For microbial analysis, use ice packs for sample submission.
5. The information about sampling method, origin of water (well, surface water, etc.), sampler and other information must be submitted to laboratory.
6. For microbial analysis, disinfect water tap or pipeline with alcohol or flame, and let water flow at least for one minute, then take sample in sterile container.
Laboratory Testing Services
A.Food & Feed Analysis
1.Crude Protein CP
3.Ether Extract EE
8.Total Volatile Nitrogen
10.Neutral Detergent Fiber NDF
11.Acid Detergent Fiber ADF
B.Blood Biochemistery & Hormons
9.Blood Urea Nitrogen
13.Creatinine Kinase ( CK )
14.Creatinine Phosphokinase ( CPK )
C.Large Animal Disease Blood Test
1.Bovine Leucosis Virus PLV
2.Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis IBR
3.Bovin Viral Diarrhoea Virus BVD-Ab
D.Poultry Diseases Blood Test
E.Pet Diseases Test
1- Canine Parvovirus Antigen
2- Canine Parvovirus Antibody
3- Heartworm Antigen
4- Rabies Antibody
5-Canine Distemper Antibody
6- Canine Distemper Antigen
7-Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) Antibody
8-FeLV Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Antigen
9-FeLV-FIV Feline Leukemia Virus Antigen - Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody
F.Microbiological Test For Water
H.Bacterial & Fungi test
M.Fish & shrimps Tests
1-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Detection Tests on Animal Stool
2-Activity evaluation of powder and liquid disinfectants on microorganisms caused contamination on food industries and animal husbandry
3-Disinfectant residual evaluation on food plants
4-Hygienic and microbial investigation of restaurant and food manufacturing companies considering HACCP
5-Investigation of toxins and heavy metals in running and back water in respect to environment
6-Investigation of sheep guts for bacterial contamination
7-Investigation of sheep & goat wool for Bacillus anthracis for export purposes
8-Investigation of meat original in food such as sausages
9-Microbial culture supply for food manufacturing companies and hatching plants to take samples
10-Microbial tests on litter in poultry farms
11-Sampling by expert people
12-Nuts microbial tests
13-Spices chemical & microbial tests
14-Juices and ciders, juices & concentrates microbial investigations
Rabies kit supplier
The only supplier of “Rabies Sampling and Transportation Kit (Cat No. PAS-78)” for Iran Veterinary Organization. This kit is prepared for detection of Rabies virus in dog brain using Fluorescence Antibody or for injection into laboratory animal (mice).